Numerous studies and papers have been devoted to the subject of thickener design and operation to achieve specified throughput and discharge densities. Mathematical models have been developed that present methods for sizing thickeners and predicting performance under varying process conditions. The compression effect of deeper beds on dewatering performance is a recognized phenomenon. This is one variable of many that are interrelated and influence thickener performance.
The responsible manufacturing of fertilizer to boost agricultural production and crop yields provides worldwide benefits for increased food production.
Leaching (lixiviation) is commonly used for recovering a wide variety of metals from ores, including precious metals. A lixiviant dissolves the desired metals from the ore; cyanide leaching, for example, is widely used to extract gold.
Lixiviation is often followed by a Counter Current Decantation (CCD) circuit to recover the valuable mineral from the gangue.